the solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device
that converts the energy of light directly into electricity
by the photovoltaic effect. It is a form of photoelectric cell,
defined as a device whose electrical characteristics,
such as current, voltage, or resistance,
vary when exposed to light.
Solar cells are the building blocks of photovoltaic modules,
otherwise known as solar panels.
Solar cells are described as being photovoltaic irrespective
of whether the source is sunlight or an artificial light.
They are used as a photodetector (for example infrared detectors),
detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range
or measuring light intensity.
The operation of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires 3 basic attributes:
The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or excitons.
The separation of charge carriers of opposite types.
The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit.